The proposed system shows a promising potential for the real-time multiview holographic 3D projectors. Abstract: In this paper, we propose a projection-type multiview holographic three-dimensional 3-D display using a single spatial light modulator SLM and a directional diffractive device, where a phase-only Fresnel hologram is calculated and displayed on the SLM to reconstruct the multiview hybrid image of a 3-D object for providing the amplitude information of a multiview light field, and a directional diffractive device covered with many pixelated gratings is designed to guide different reconstructed perspectives into different viewing zones for expressing the phase information of the light field.
Furthermore, a four-view directional diffractive device is fabricated by using the pixelated holographic exposure method, and its optical properties are also measured under a collimated illumination of the green reconstruction laser with the designed wavelength. In the work, the scientists used a second SPP wave as a reference and created an interference pattern with the SPP of interest to form a hologram when both waves overlapped in space and time.
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The scientists observed holograms formed by the 2 SPPs with relative pulse delays of , , 0 and 22 femtoseconds by energy filtering inelastically scattered electrons. Madan et al. Since electrons carry information about the amplitude and phase of the optical field, even after completing the interaction, the scientists exploited this fact to enable quantum holography. In the experiments, they made use of a semi-infinite light field created by the reflection of the optical beam from an electron transparent optical mirror, to create a material-independent reference field.
The setup allowed nearly constant spatial amplitude and phase to prepare an optimum reference field for holography in the study. In the context of this study, quantum coherence of an electron state did not refer to the coherence between electrons, but to a measure of the monochromaticity singularity and phase stability of the electron plane wave.
Holographic imaging of electromagnetic fields using electron-light quantum interference
In the quantum sense, therefore, the phase between different energy states was determined by the time evolution operator and not at random. The scientists then reconstructed the complex electric field distribution around 3-D particles or nanostructures. They showed that the mathematical equivalence of local plasmon holography and spatially separated quantum holography allowed the recorded holograms to be treated with the same formalism of propagating standing waves. The resulting pattern exhibited a periodicity that was naturally absent from an untilted hologram.
Using model calculations, Madan et al. For this, they modelled the density matrix of photoelectrons generated, for example, using UV illumination of a solid target. They then coordinated the electron states to interact with a traveling plasmon polariton in the experimental setup.
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By observing the electron energy distribution, the scientists were able to establish if there was partial coherence in the photoemitted electrons. Based on the observation, they proposed a further extension of the UEM holographic imaging to practically realize quantum holographic UEM. The scientists envision using the technique to study potential objects of interest such as atomic polarizabilities, excitons, phonons, Higgs and other collective and quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems in the future. The present work provided sufficient information to reconstruct the complete density matrix of an unknown electronic state, similar to a previous approach on quantum state reconstruction with attosecond pulse trains.
But unlike previous work, this method can also use well-controlled SPP fields to realize a number of projective measurements in parallel. In this way Madan et al.
The scientists showed that the nonlocal character of the technique allowed to completely decouple the reference and probe fields, which was not previously possible with near-field optical or photoemission microscopy techniques. The work offers a unique perspective to achieve atomic and sub-femtosecond combined resolution within a transmission microscope. The method will allow a spatially resolved detection method of coherences in electron quantum states with great potential for electron quantum holography and additional applications.
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Attosecond electron pulse trains and quantum state reconstruction in ultrafast transmission electron microscopy, Nature Photonics DOI: Xianglei Liu et al. A new microscopic principle. May , Nature. More from Other Physics Topics. Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors.
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The interference contrast appears only when the two pulses overlap in space and time. Inset: SEM image of a fabricated structure. Black regions are grooves, which serve as plasmon sources. CCD, charge-coupled device. Credit: Science Advances, doi: Plasmon hologram evolution with 0. The SPP emitted from the vertical slit propagates from left to right. Correspondingly, the interference pattern moves from the bottom-left to the top-right corner.
I Evolution of the profiles shown in E to H as a function of delay between the two pulses; because of the experimentally adopted sample orientation, retardation effects cause the slope of the fringes see dashed line as a guide to be decreased by a factor of 0. J Envelope of the interference pattern as a function of delay between the two pulses, with the slope of the peak see dashed line as a guide also decreased by a factor of 0.
Envelope data have been acquired in a separate measurement over a longer delay span and with larger time steps. Principle of spatially separated electron holography. The ensuing interaction with an SPP depends on the relative phase between SPP and reference fields, which results in a position-dependent electron energy distribution. The elastic part of the electron spectrum is then used to form the 2D hologram. The spectra on the right are simulations from an analytical model.
B Hybrid energy-space map spectrogram of the electrons after interaction with the two fields, as schematized in A. D Energy profiles at the maximum and minimum of the spatial modulation shown in B , averaged over four periods. Proposal for the determination of the coherence of photoemitted electrons. A Density matrix of a fully coherent pure state created by photoemission. B Spatially dependent spectrogram formed after interaction of the pure state with an SPP. C Density matrix of the completely mixed state.