This requires the deployment of additional aircraft to engage targets that would normally require a single non-stealth attack aircraft. This apparent disadvantage however is offset by the reduction in fewer supporting aircraft that are required to provide air cover, air-defense suppression and electronic counter measures, making stealth aircraft " force multipliers ". Stealth aircraft often have skins made with Radar-absorbent materials or RAMs. Some of these contain Carbon black particles, some contain tiny iron spheres.
There are many materials used in RAMs, and some are classified, particularly the materials that specific aircraft use. Stealth aircraft are typically more expensive to develop and manufacture. An example is the B-2 Spirit that is many times more expensive to manufacture and support than conventional bomber aircraft. The B-2 program cost the U. Passive multistatic radar , bistatic radar  and especially multistatic radar systems detect some stealth aircraft better than conventional monostatic radars , since first-generation stealth technology such as the F reflects energy away from the transmitter's line of sight , effectively increasing the radar cross section RCS in other directions, which the passive radars monitor.
Such a system typically uses either low frequency broadcast TV and FM radio signals at which frequencies controlling the aircraft's signature is more difficult. Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign with support of DARPA , have shown that it is possible to build a synthetic aperture radar image of an aircraft target using passive multistatic radar, possibly detailed enough to enable automatic target recognition.
That the array could contain a large amount of inexpensive equipment could potentially offer some "protection" against attacks by expensive anti-radar or anti-radiation missiles. VHF radar systems have wavelengths comparable to aircraft feature sizes and should exhibit scattering in the resonance region rather than the optical region, allowing most stealth aircraft to be detected.
Despite the advantages offered by VHF radar, their longer wavelengths result in poor resolution compared to comparably sized X band radar array. As a result, these systems must be very large before they can have the resolution for an engagement radar. An example of a ground-based VHF radar with counter-stealth capability is the P radar. Over-the-horizon radar is a concept increasing radar's effective range over conventional radar.
In other words, stealth aircraft are optimized for defeating much higher-frequency radar from front-on rather than low-frequency radars from above. The U. The first use of stealth aircraft was in the U.
In the F Nighthawk was used in the First Gulf War, where Fs flew 1, sorties and scored direct hits on 1, high-value targets in Iraq  while accumulating 6, flight hours. During this war, B-2s flew non-stop to Kosovo from their home base in Missouri and back. In the invasion of Iraq, F Nighthawks and B-2 Spirits were used, and this was the last time the F would see combat. Fs dropped satellite-guided strike munitions on selected targets, with high success.
B-2 Spirits conducted 49 sorties in the invasion, releasing 1. During the May operation to kill Osama bin Laden , one of the helicopters used to clandestinely insert U. From the wreckage it was revealed this helicopter had stealth characteristics, making this the first publicly known operational use of a stealth helicopter.
Stealth aircraft were used in the military intervention in Libya , where B-2 Spirits dropped 40 bombs on a Libyan airfield with concentrated air defenses in support of the UN no-fly zone.
Stealth aircraft will continue to play a valuable role in air combat with the United States using the F Raptor , B-2 Spirit, and the F Lightning II to perform a variety of operations. In , a report surfaced noting that Israeli FI stealth fighters conducted a number of missions in Syria and even infiltrated Iranian airspace without detection. The People's Republic of China started to flight testing its Chengdu J stealth multirole fighter around in and made first public appearance at Airshow China The Russian Sukhoi Su stealth multi-role fighter is scheduled to be introduced from , to perform various missions.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Aircraft design process.
The Stealth Bomber Elite
Main article: Skin aeronautics. Main articles: Radar and Radio wave. Main article: Infrared signature. Air Force F Nighthawk stealth attack aircraft. Air Force B-2 Spirit strategic stealth bomber. Air Force F Raptor fifth generation stealth air superiority fighter.
UK's new stealth fighter jets join fight against Islamic State | London Evening Standard
Aviation portal. Retrieved 16 December Foxtrot Alpha. Retrieved 7 March The National Interest. Grosz London: Putnam. The British Airship at War, — Terence Dalton. Aviation History. The New York Times. Retrieved 18 December Flight International. Federation of American Scientist. Retrieved 21 February Deze website is te koop!
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Archived from the original on 12 November Archived from the original on 26 January Popular Science. Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 29 December Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, Retrieved 17 January Its stealthy skin is now easier to maintain, and the time spent on maintenance per flight hour has been cut in half. Its radar and communications have been improved.
Since , new precision-guided weapons have been added to the quiver, and more are on the way, including a nuclear-tipped cruise missile. But almost two decades of experience can. The learning began in early , when the B-2 first went into combat over the former Yugoslavia. Pita had been flying F fighters for seven years at bases in Japan and the United States. The Air Force selects B-2 pilots from both fighter and bomber camps.
The philosophy is that the autonomy and adaptability of the former complements the team-oriented steadiness of the latter. Even for highly experienced pilots, acceptance into the B-2 corps usually takes a year. New pilots master the T, an agile, twin-seat jet trainer that keeps skills and reactions sharp, and they must complete an initial qualification training IQT course covering fundamental B-2 skills.
Each IQT class holds just three or four trainees; classes graduate in six or seven months. Then fully qualified, Pita served as an instructor, pending the chance to fly the bomber into combat. Continue or Give a Gift. Daily Planet. Flight Today. History of Flight. Virtual Space.
- Fewer than 100 pilots climb the ladder to the B-2 cockpit.
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